1. Lactobacilli
Bacteria producing lactic acid, including:

    • L.acidophilus
    • L.bulgaricus
    • L.rhamnosus
    • L.plantarum
    • L.salvarius
    • L.reuteri
    • L.jonsonii
    • L.casei
    • L.delbrueskii


  • Normal and essential inhabitants of the human gut, mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, nose and upper respiratory tract, vagina and genital area.
  • Found in large numbers in human breast milk.
  • Maintain acidic environment (pH5.5-5.6) which suppresses the growth of pathogenic microbes.
  • Produce hydrogen peroxide which is an antiseptic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal agents.
  • Engage the immune system and stimulate activity of neutrophils, macrophages, synthesis of immuno-globulins, alpha and beta interpherons, interleukin-1 and TNF.
  • Involved in orchestrating the cell renewal process in the gut, keeping the lining healthy and intact.


2. Bifidobacteria
Most common of the 30 species:

    • bifidum
    • breve
    • longum
    • infantis
    • Most numerous in the bowel, lower intestines, vagina and genital area.
    • 90-98% of the bacteria living in the bowel of a healthy baby are these bacteria.
  • Produce different antibiotic-like substances which protect the gut from pathogens, engaging the immune system and maintaining gut integrity and health, they also act as a source of nourishment for the body.
  • Actively synthesise:
    • Amino Acids
    • Proteins
    • Organic acids
    • Vitamin K
    • Pantothenic acid
    • Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B6, B12
    • Folic acid
  • Assist absorption of:
    • Calcium
    • Iron
    • Vitamin D
  1. Saccharomyces boulardii
  • A yeast specifically used to treat diarrhoea.
  • An antagonist to Candida albicans.


  1. Escherichia coli or E. Coli
  • Physiological not pathogenic strains occupy bowel, lower intestines.
  • If in the mouth, stomach or duodenum, this indicates an abnormality in gut ecology called Gut Dysbiosis.
  • Beneficial Functions in the body:
    • Digest lactose.
    • Produce Vitamin K, amino acids, antibiotic-like substances called colicins.
    • Powerful stimulating influence on local and systemic immunity.
    • Active against pathogenic microbes, including members of their own family.


  1. Enterococcus faecium or Streptococcus faecalis
  • Isolated from human stools.
  • Normally live in the bowel where they control pathogens by producing hydrogen peroxide and reducing the pH to 5.5.
  • Break down proteins and ferment carbohydrates.
  • Effective in treating some forms of diarrhoea.


  1. Bacillus subtilis or soil bacteria

Subspecies are:

    • B.licheniformis
    • B.cereus
    • B.brevis
    • B.mesentericus
    • B.pumilis
    • B.subtilis
  • B.subtilis is the most commonly used subspecies.
  • It is a spore-forming microbe, resistant to:
    • Stomach acid
    • Most antibiotics
    • Temperature changes
  • It has strong:
    • Immune-stimulating properties.
    • Particularly effective with allergies and auto-immune disorders.
    • Produces digestive enzymes.
    • Is anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial.


  • Soil bacteria are not indigenous to humans; they are transitional microbes which do not colonise the gut but go through it doing a lot of good work on the way.
  • So, you need to keep taking these if you feel better on them.
  • We used to consume far more soil in routinely drinking water from a well or stream for example, and the gut has evolved a need for these transitional bacteria.
  • One possible need is keeping the gut clean; as the above species are used in waste management systems as they have a great ability to break down rotting matter and suppress putrefactive microbes.



  1. An adult should have around 15-20 billion of bacterial cells per day.
  2. An infant up to 12 months of age can have 1-2 billion of bacterial cells per day.
  3. A toddler from 1 to 2 years of age can have 2-4 billion of bacterial cells per day.
  4. A child from 2-4 years of age can handle 4-8 billion of bacterial cells per day.
  5. A child from 4-10 years of age can have 8-12 billion of bacterial cells per day.
  6. From the age of 12-16 we can increase the dose to 12-15 billion of bacterial cells per day.

Once the therapeutic level has been reached and die-off reactions have ceased, it should be maintained for at least 6 months.

-Taken from the GAPS Syndrome Book by Dr Campbell-McBride

Don’t let the title mislead you; it was originally designed as a diet for autistic children, but as the rewards of a repaired gut began to be seen, it spread to mainstream nutrition.

Probiotics According to Symptoms:

Please refer to resources provided by the website:


  • Categories 1 & 5: Symprove: this is a more expensive option, but very easy.
  • Categories 1, 5 & 6: Biolatte: get the ‘original sachets.’ This product should be emptied into a glass the night before, and drunk first thing in the morning which allows it to ferment overnight. It is cheap, and very effective.
  • Category 6: Kiki: Soil-Based Tablets.
  • For Children, Category 1&5: Udo’s Powder
  • For Children, category 1: Biogaia Protectis
  • Category 3: Culturelle
  • Categories 4: VSL#3


Keffir comes in water or milk grains. I prefer to recommend water, as raw A2 milk (which is the best kind to drink) is harder to come by.

I like to buy my own grains from Happy Kombucha which I think is very reputable. For this mixture to succeed, you will need some muscovado sugar, some coconut water (as opposed to milk) and a 2L glass bottle with a rubber stopper (Kilner jar is the best).


  • Place the grains in the jar and add 500ml/1/2L of coconut water and 6 heaped tbsp light or dark muscovado sugar.
  • Close it up, and leave it in a cool dark place (but not the fridge) for at least 24 hrs.
  • By the time this has passed, you should notice bubbles start to appear in the mix, and it should make a sound like opening a soft drink can when you open the jar. It should have a sweet/sour taste, and should continue to bubble/ferment as long as you keep feeding it liquid and sugar.
  • Have 1 small glass per day, and when you are getting low on liquid, top it up with 250ml of coconut water and 1-2 tbsp of sugar.
  • Experiment with the sugar to water ratio until you find a taste that works. Bear in mind that the more sugar you add the less good it becomes for you, and the more potent it is!
  • Keep the amount in the jar to about half, otherwise the fermentation will cause the liquid to swell and the gas to shatter the glass. While the smaller the amount of sugar the better, if you add too small an amount then it might stop fizzing or taste too sour.
  • When you pour out the liquid, take care to do it with a fine strainer (I find a tea leaf strainer works well) and add the grains back into the main pot rather than drinking them.



These kinds of foods are very important for good gut health, and even a tablespoon per day can add huge benefits.


Source credit: Naava Carmen, Fertility Support Training Limited


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